Your body is affected differently by different foods, with sugar leading to fattening. Both sucrose and corn syrup high in fructose has two molecules. The molecules are sugar and fructose.
Sugar is very essential to life, besides being a constituent section of our metabolism. Sugar gets manufactured in our bodies; hence we have a stable stock of sugar in our blood flow.
Sugar is used by every cell found in the body for energy. If your diet does not have sugar, your body manufactures what you require from fats and proteins.
However, unlike sugar, fructose is entirely different. Fructose molecule is neither a natural section of metabolism nor produced in your body. Apart from the liver, very few cells found in your body utilize fructose molecule.
If you eat much sugar, the liver metabolizes most of the fructose. In the liver, the fructose gets converted into fat, which gets finally secreted in blood.
Insulin resistance is initiated by fructose
Ever heard of insulin hormone? The hormone is among the primary hormones controlling the use of energy and metabolism in your body. Insulin is produced by the pancreas, moves in the blood and finally to peripheral cells such as muscle cells.
The hormone signals the peripheral cells to place sugar transporters on their surfaces, hence enabling sugar to move into the cells where it gets utilized. If you eat a high carb meal, your sugar levels increase. Since excess sugar is poisonous, insulin increases rapidly, to remove the excess sugar from the bloodstream and move it to cells.
If insulin your body fails to work correctly or it happens to be at lower levels, sugar in the blood can increase to dangerous levels. The mechanism works pretty well in healthy people, enabling them to eat meals rich in carbohydrates, without the sugar concentrations in the blood rising to higher levels. Nevertheless, the mechanism might break, and make cells resistant to insulin effects, hence forcing the pancreas to produce more, to be able to move the sugar into cells.
If you become resistant to insulin, the levels of insulin in your blood remain higher always, until the whole mechanism breaks leading to type II diabetes.
However, insulin has other uses, such as sending signals to fat cells. The hormone instructs fat cells to collect fat from the bloodstream and keep them, and prevent the burning of the fat.
When the levels of insulin get highly raised, much energy in the blood is deposited selectively in fat cells as a reservoir. Consumption of excess fructose is the primary cause of resistance to insulin and increased levels of insulin in the blood. As a result, stored fats become hard for the body to access, hence the brain signals hunger and you eat more.
Leptin hormone resistance by fructose
The effect of fructose on leptin hormone leads to increased weight. The hormone gets produced by fat cells. If the fat cell is large, the more leptin it produces. Your brain uses the signal to determine the amount of fat stored for a rainy day.
Some of the foods we eat are stored in fat cells, making them increase in size and produce more leptin. After the brain detects the increase in lepsin, it recognizes the fat stored is sufficient, and no more eating is required. The unique mechanism gets naturally planned, to hinder us from hunger and cause us eat little when there is abundant of fat stored in the fat cells. The mechanism protects us from being obese.
More fat leads to secretion of more leptin, hence sufficient energy which hinders us from eating. An increase in leptin leads to the release of more fat from the reservoirs, raising the metabolic rate.
Although the process should work that way, if the brain turns to be resistant to leptin, the process fails to work. Also, if the brain fails to detect the leptin, it fails to determine if the fat cells are full, leading to more eating.
Low leptin leads to less energy storage hence more eating and less burning of fats. Leptin resistance makes us fat by making the brain think the body is starved, hence more eating and less burning.
The manner in which the body and the brain control food consumption is entirely complicated, and comprises of many hormones and neural circuits. All signals get explained in a brain part known as the hypothalamus. Leptin hormone, different neurons and other hormones work in this part.
In 2013, a study examining the effects of sugar versus fructose on food intake and satisfaction got published. 20 volunteers were given either fructose or sugar-sweetened the drink, their brains got scanned, and they got later asked many questions.
The results indicated sugar drink caused a reduction in blood flow and hypothalamus activity, while fructose had no effect.
Grehlin hormone is essential for hunger, and the more the hormone, the more the appetite. Also, some study indicated that sugar lowered the blood levels of the hormone than fructose.
From the studies, it is clear that fructose does not bring satisfaction after eating, as compared to sugar, leading to increased calorie intake.
Sugar is addictive to some people
Similar to drugs of abuse such as cocaine, sugar leads to opiate and dopamine function in the reward middles of the brain.
In 2008, a review paper got published in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews journal, where researchers experimented if there is any evidence of sugar addiction. Rats were used in the study since they get addicted just like humans. The results indicated sugar is addictive and affects pathways similar to drugs to abuse.
Besides giving us pleasure, eating sugar produces dopamine and opiates in the reward system of the brain, and to be precise in an area known as nucleus accumbens. The same areas get stimulated by cocaine and nicotine. The addiction leads to a high reward-seeking behavior, which causes an individual to overeat.